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EVIDENCE FOR DESIGN IN THE UNIVERSE

from Limits for the Universe by Hugh Ross, Ph.D. in Astronomy

A PDF version of this chart can be viewed and printed by selecting this link.

1 Gravitational coupling constant If larger: No stars less than 1.4 solar masses, hence short stellar life spans
If smaller: No stars more than 0.8 solar masses, hence no heavy element production
2 Strong nuclear force coupling constant If larger: No hydrogen; nuclei essential for life are unstable
If smaller: No elements other than hydrogen
3 Weak nuclear force coupling constant If larger: All hydrogen is converted to helium in the big bang, hence too much heavy elements
If smaller: No helium produced from big bang, hence not enough heavy elements
4 Electromagnetic coupling constant If larger: No chemical bonding; elements more massive than boron are unstable to fission
If smaller: No chemical bonding
5 Ratio of protons to electrons formation If larger: Electromagnetism dominates gravity preventing galaxy, star, and planet formation
If smaller: Electromagnetism dominates gravity preventing galaxy, star, and planet formation
6 Ratio of electron to proton mass If larger: No chemical bonding
If smaller: No chemical bonding
7 Expansion rate of the universe If larger: No galaxy formation
If smaller: Universe collapses prior to star formation
8 Entropy level of universe If larger: No star condensation within the proto-galaxies
If smaller: No proto-galaxy formation
9 Mass density of the universe If larger: Too much deuterium from big bang, hence stars burn too rapidly
If smaller: No helium from big bang, hence not enough heavy elements
10 Age of the universe If older: No solar-type stars in a stable burning phase in the right part of the galaxy
If younger: Solar-type stars in a stable burning phase would not yet have formed
11 Initial uniformity of radiation If  smoother: Stars, star clusters, and galaxies would not have formed
If coarser: Universe by now would be mostly black holes and empty space
12 Average distance between stars If larger: Heavy element density too thin for rocky planet production
If smaller: Planetary orbits become destabilized
13 Solar luminosity If increases too soon: Runaway green house effect
If increases too late: Frozen oceans
14 Fine structure constant* If larger: No stars more than 0.7 solar masses
If smaller: No stars less then 1.8 solar masses
15 Decay rate of the proton If greater: Life would be exterminated by the release of radiation
If smaller: Insufficient matter in the universe for life
16 12C to 16O energy level ratio If larger: Insufficient oxygen
If smaller: Insufficient carbon
17 Decay rate of 8Be If slower: Heavy element fusion would generate catastrophic explosions in all the stars
If faster: No element production beyond beryllium and, hence, no life chemistry possible
18 Mass difference between the neutron and the proton If greater: Protons would decay before stable nuclei could form
If smaller: Protons would decay before stable nuclei could form
19 Initial excess of nucleons over anti-nucleons If greater: Too much radiation for planets to form
If smaller: Not enough matter for galaxies or stars to form
20 Galaxy type If too elliptical: Star formation ceases  before sufficient heavy element buildup for life chemistry
If too irregular: Radiation exposure on occasion is too severe and/or heavy elements for life chemistry are not available
21 Parent star distance from center of galaxy If farther: Quantity of heavy elements would be insufficient to make rocky planets
If closer: Stellar density and radiation would be too great
22 Number of stars in the planetary system If more than one: Tidal interactions would disrupt planetary orbits
If less than one: Heat produced would be insufficient for life
23 Parent star birth date If more recent: Star would not yet have reached stable burning phase
If less recent: Stellar system would not yet contain enough heavy elements
24 Parent star mass If greater: Luminosity would change too fast; star would burn too rapidly
If less: Range of distances appropriate for life would be too narrow; tidal forces would disrupt the rotational period for a planet of the right distance; uv radiation would be inadequate for plants to make sugars and oxygen
25 Parent star age If older: Luminosity of star would change too quickly
If younger: Luminosity of star would change too quickly
26 Parent star color If redder: Photosynthetic response would be insufficient
If bluer: Photosynthetic response would be insufficient
27 Supernovae eruptions If too close: Life on the planet would be exterminated
If too far: Not enough heavy element ashes for the formation of rocky planets
If too infrequent: Not enough heavy element ashes for the formation of rocky planets
If too frequent: Life on the planet would be exterminated
28 White dwarf binaries If too few: Insufficient fluorine produced for life chemistry to proceed
If too many: Disruption of planetary orbits from stellar density; life on the planet would be exterminated
29 Surface gravity (escape velocity) If stronger: Atmosphere would retain too much ammonia and methane
If weaker: Planet's atmosphere would lose too much water
30 Distance from parent star If farther: Planet would be too cool for a stable water cycle
If closer: Planet would be too warm for a stable water cycle
31 Inclination of orbit If too great:  Temperature differences on the planet would be too extreme 
32 Orbital eccentricity If too great: Seasonal temperature differences would be too extreme 
33 Axial tilt If greater: Surface temperature differences would be too great
If less: Surface temperature differences would be too great
34 Rotation period If longer: Diurnal temperature differences would be too great
If shorter: Atmospheric wind velocities would be too great
35 Gravitational interaction with a moon If greater: Tidal effects on the oceans, atmosphere, and rotational period would be too severe
If less: Orbital obliquity changes would cause climatic instabilities
36 Magnetic field If stronger: Electromagnetic storms would be too severe
If weaker: Inadequate protection from hard stellar radiation
37 Thickness of crust If thicker: Too much oxygen would be transferred from the atmosphere to the crust
If thinner: Volcanic and tectonic activity would be too great
38 Albedo (ratio of reflected light to total amount falling on surface) If greater: Runaway ice age would develop
If less: Runaway green house effect would develop
39 Oxygen to nitrogen ratio in atmosphere If larger: Advanced life functions would proceed too quickly
If smaller: Advanced life functions would proceed too slowly
40 Carbon dioxide level in atmosphere If greater: Runaway greenhouse effect would develop
If less: Plants would not be able to maintain efficient photosynthesis
41 Water vapor level in atmosphere If greater: Runaway greenhouse effect would develop
If less: Rainfall would be too meager for advanced life on the land
42 Ozone level in atmosphere If greater: Surface temperatures would be too low
If less Surface temperatures would be too high; there would be too much uv radiation at the surface
43 Atmospheric electric discharge rate If greater: Too much fire destruction would occur
If less: Too little nitrogen would be fixed in the atmosphere
44 Oxygen quantity in atmosphere If greater: Plants and hydrocarbons would burn up too easily
If less: Advanced animals would have too little to breathe
45 Oceans to continents ratio If greater: Diversity and complexity of life-forms would be limited
If smaller: diversity and complexity of life-forms would be limited
46 Soil materializations If too nutrient poor: diversity and complexity of life-forms would be limited
If too nutrient rich: Diversity and complexity of life-forms would be limited
47 Seismic activity If greater: Too many life-forms would be destroyed
If less: Nutrients on ocean floors (from river runoff) would not be recycled to the continents through tectonic uplift
*(A function of three other fundamental constants, Planck's constant, the velocity of light, and the electron charge each of which, therefore, must be fine-tuned)

Source: http://www.doesgodexist.org